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Array

Date:  2017-05-25 00:00:00

An array is a collection of data items, all of the same type, accessed using a common name. A one-dimensional array is like a list; A two dimensional array is like a table; The C language places no limits on the number of dimensions in an array, though specific implementations may. Some texts refer to one-dimensional arrays as vectors, two-dimensional arrays as matrices, and use the general te........

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Pointer

Date:  2017-05-25 00:00:00

We have postponed until now a discussion of the concept of indirect access i.e. access of objects using their address. As we have seen variables local to a function may be accessed using their name only within that function. When arguments are passed to another function only the values are passed and the called function may use these values but cannot affect the variable cells in the calling funct........

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String Handling

Date:  2017-05-25 00:00:00

While C does not support strings, it has a number of functions available for doing just that. This is analogous to how C handles mathematics. The string functions operate on character arrays. In general, we do not know how long a string might be, and neither do the string functions, so we must indicate the end by some means. One character that cannot be part of any string is the null character (\\........

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Inheritance in java

Date:  2017-05-25 00:00:00

Inheritance in java is a mechanism in which one object acquires all the properties and behaviors of parent object. The idea behind inheritance in java is that you can create new classes that are built upon existing classes. When you inherit from an existing class, you can reuse methods and fields of parent class, and you can add new methods and fields also. Inheritance is a compile-time mechani........

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JDK vs JRE vs JVM

Date:  2017-05-25 00:00:00

A Java virtual machine (JVM) is a virtual machine that can execute Java bytecode. It is the code execution component of the Java software platform. The Java Development Kit (JDK) is an Oracle Corporation product aimed at Java developers. Since the introduction of Java, it has been by far the most widely used Java Software Development Kit (SDK). Java Runtime Environment, is also referred to a........

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Collection

Date:  2017-05-25 00:00:00

Collections in java is a framework that provides an architecture to store and manipulate the group of objects. All the operations that you perform on a data such as searching, sorting, insertion, manipulation, deletion etc. can be performed by Java Collections. Java Collection simply means a single unit of objects. Java Collection framework provides many interfaces (Set, List, Queue, Deque etc.)........

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Union Type

Date:  2017-05-25 00:00:00

For the latest documentation on Visual Studio 2017, see Unions on docs.microsoft.com. A union is a user-defined type in which all members share the same memory location. This means that at any given time a union can contain no more than one object from its list of members. It also means that no matter how many members a union has; it always uses only enough memory to store the largest member. Uni........

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Copy Initialization

Date:  2017-05-25 00:00:00

The initialization that occurs in argument passing, function return, throwing an exception, handling an exception, and brace-enclosed initializer lists is called copy-initialization and is equivalent to the form T x = a. Time to go into details. Consider the following two ways of initialzing a variable: int x = 10; int y(10); The former one is an example of \"copy initialization\" whereas th........

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Arithmetic Operators

Date:  2017-05-25 00:00:00

An arithmetic operator performs mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction and multiplication on numerical values (constants and variables). Operator Meaning of Operator + addition or unary plus - subtraction or unary minus * multiplication / division % remainder after division( modulo division) ........

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C Programming Functi

Date:  2017-05-25 00:00:00

A function is a group of statements that together perform a task. Every C program has at least one function, which is main(), and all the most trivial programs can define additional functions. You can divide up your code into separate functions. How you divide up your code among different functions is up to you, but logically the division is such that each function performs a specific task. A fu........

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Standard library fun

Date:  2017-05-25 00:00:00

The standard library functions are built-in functions in C programming to handle tasks such as mathematical computations, I/O processing, string handling etc. These functions are defined in the header file. When you include the header file, these functions are available for use. For example: The printf() is a standard library function to send formatted output to the screen (display output on the........

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Class Object

Date:  2017-05-25 00:00:00

C++ is a multi-paradigm programming language. Meaning, it supports different programming styles. One of the popular ways to solve a programming problem is by creating objects, known as object-oriented style of programming. C++ supports object-oriented (OO) style of programming which allows you to divide complex problems into smaller sets by creating objects. Object is simply a collection of dat........

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Define Polymorphism

Date:  2017-05-25 00:00:00

The word polymorphism means having many forms. Typically, polymorphism occurs when there is a hierarchy of classes and they are related by inheritance. C++ polymorphism means that a call to a member function will cause a different function to be executed depending on the type of object that invokes the function. The word polymorphism means having many forms. In simple words, we can define polymo........

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Definition of Inheri

Date:  2017-05-25 00:00:00

One of the most important concepts in object-oriented programming is that of inheritance. Inheritance allows us to define a class in terms of another class, which makes it easier to create and maintain an application. This also provides an opportunity to reuse the code functionality and fast implementation time. When creating a class, instead of writing completely new data members and member func........

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Definition of Except

Date:  2017-05-25 00:00:00

The javadoc command parses the declarations and documentation comments in a set of Java source files and produces a corresponding set of HTML pages that describe (by default) the public and protected classes, nested classes (but not anonymous inner classes), interfaces, constructors, methods, and fields. You can use the javadoc command to generate the API documentation or the implementation docume........

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Throwing and catchin

Date:  2017-05-25 00:00:00

Language compilers are adept at pointing out most of the erroneous code in a program, however there are some errors that only become apparent when the program is executed. Consider the code listing; here, the program defines a method divide that does a simple division operation taking two integers as parameter arguments and returning the result of their division. It can safely be assumed that when........

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Definition of Annota

Date:  2017-05-25 00:00:00

In Java, an annotation is a language construct (introduced in J2SE 1.5) that provides a mechanism for including metadata directly in the source code. One of the main forces of adding this feature to Java was the wide spread use of XML descriptors to add additional information, metadata, for Java classes. Frameworks like EJB, JSF, Spring, Hibernate were heavily using external XML descriptors. The ........

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Introduction

Date:  2017-05-25 00:00:00

As with any OS, file handling is a core concept in Linux. Any system programmer would learn it as one of his/her initial programming assignments. This aspect of programming involves system files. Through file handling, one can perform operations like create, modify, delete etc on system files. Here in this article I try to bring in the very basic of file handling. Hope this article will clear the ........

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Apps provide multipl

Date:  2017-05-25 00:00:00

Android apps are built as a combination of distinct components that can be invoked individually. For instance, an individual activity provides a single screen for a user interface, and a service independently performs work in the background. From one component you can start another component using an intent. You can even start a component in a different app, such as an activity in a maps app to s........

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Introduction

Date:  2017-05-25 00:00:00

ASP.NET is a web development platform, which provides a programming model, a comprehensive software infrastructure and various services required to build up robust web applications for PC, as well as mobile devices. ASP.NET works on top of the HTTP protocol, and uses the HTTP commands and policies to set a browser-to-server bilateral communication and cooperation. ASP.NET is a part of Microsoft .N........

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Introduction to Comp

Date:  2017-05-25 00:00:00

Introduction to Compiler Design is a textbook is intended for an introductory course on compiler design, suitable for use in an undergraduate programme in computer science or related fields. The book presents techniques for making realistic, though non-optimising compilers for simple programming languages using methods that are close to those used in \"real\" compilers, albeit slightly simplified ........

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This Course

Date:  2017-05-25 00:00:00

In this course, we will study the last two areas in reverse order: We will start with Automata Theory, followed by Computability Theory. The first area, Complexity Theory, will be covered in COMP 3804. Actually, before we start, we will review some mathematical proof techniques. As you may guess, this is a fairly theoretical course, with lots of definitions, theorems, and proofs.........

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Definition of Picass

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

Picasso is an image library for Android. It\'s created and maintained by Square. It simplifies the process of displaying images from external locations. The library handles every stage of the process, from the initial HTTP request to the caching of the image. In many cases, only a few lines of code are required to implement this neat library. Picasso shines for displaying remote images. The librar........

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Introduction

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

A Fragment represents a behavior or a portion of user interface in an Activity. You can combine multiple fragments in a single activity to build a multi-pane UI and reuse a fragment in multiple activities. You can think of a fragment as a modular section of an activity, which has its own lifecycle, receives its own input events, and which you can add or remove while the activity is running (sort o........

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Design Philosophy

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

Android introduced fragments in Android 3.0 (API level 11), primarily to support more dynamic and flexible UI designs on large screens, such as tablets. Because a tablet\'s screen is much larger than that of a handset, there\'s more room to combine and interchange UI components. Fragments allow such designs without the need for you to manage complex changes to the view hierarchy. By dividing the l........

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Creating Fragment

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

You can think of a fragment as a modular section of an activity, which has its own lifecycle, receives its own input events, and which you can add or remove while the activity is running (sort of like a \"sub activity\" that you can reuse in different activities). This lesson shows how to extend the Fragment class using the Support Library so your app remains compatible with devices running system........

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Introduction

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

When you create an implicit intent, the Android system finds the appropriate component to start by comparing the contents of the intent to the intent filters declared in the manifest file of other apps on the device. If the intent matches an intent filter, the system starts that component and delivers it the Intent object. If multiple intent filters are compatible, the system displays a dialog so ........

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Building an Intent

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

The URI ( a Uri object) that references the data to be acted on and/or the MIME type of that data. The type of data supplied is generally dictated by the intent\'s action. For example, if the action is ACTION_EDIT, the data should contain the URI of the document to edit. When creating an intent, it\'s often important to specify the type of data (its MIME type) in addition to its URI. For example,........

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Implicit Intent

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

An implicit intent specifies an action that can invoke any app on the device able to perform the action. Using an implicit intent is useful when your app cannot perform the action, but other apps probably can and you\'d like the user to pick which app to use. For example, if you have content that you want the user to share with other people, create an intent with the ACTION_SEND action and add ex........

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Picasso Library

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

You might be thinking that why we should use a 3rd party library. You can achieve your task without using a 3rd party API as well. I have also posted a tutorial about downloading image without using 3rd party library. But if you will use the core method then it would take larger amount of code. But if we will use a 3rd party library like picasso then we will achieve our goal in few lines of code. ........

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Introduction Web Ap

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

ASP.NET is a unified Web platform that provides all the services necessary for you to build enterprise-class applications. ASP.NET is built on the .NET Framework, so all .NET Framework features are available to ASP.NET applications. Your applications can be written in any language that is compatible with the common language runtime (CLR), including Visual Basic and C#. The topics in this section p........

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Introduction Cookies

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

A cookie is a small bit of text that accompanies requests and pages as they go between the Web server and browser. The cookie contains information the Web application can read whenever the user visits the site. Most browsers support cookies of up to 4096 bytes. Because of this small limit, cookies are best used to store small amounts of data, or better yet, an identifier such as a user ID. The use........

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Master Pages Overvie

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

ASP.NET master pages allow you to create a consistent layout for the pages in your application. A single master page defines the look and feel and standard behavior that you want for all of the pages (or a group of pages) in your application. You can then create individual content pages that contain the content you want to display. When users request the content pages, they merge with the master p........

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Writing Cookies

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

The browser is responsible for managing cookies on a user system. Cookies are sent to the browser via the HttpResponse object that exposes a collection called Cookies. You can access the HttpResponse object as the Response property of your Page class. Any cookies that you want to send to the browser must be added to this collection. When creating a cookie, you specify a Name and Value. Each cookie........

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Content Pages

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

You define the content for the master page\'s placeholder controls by creating individual content pages, which are ASP.NET pages (.aspx files and, optionally, code-behind files) that are bound to a specific master page. The binding is established in the content page\'s @ Page directive by including a MasterPageFile attribute that points to the master page to be used. For example, a content page mi........

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Introduction

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

An interpreter is another way of implementing a programming language. Interpretation shares many aspects with compiling. Lexing, parsing and type-checking are in an interpreter done just as in a compiler. But instead of generating code from the syntax tree, the syntax tree is processed directly to evaluate expressions and execute statements, and so on. An interpreter may need to process the same p........

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Introduction

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

The word “lexical” in the traditional sense means “pertaining to words”. In terms of programming languages, words are objects like variable names, numbers, keywords etc. Such words are traditionally called tokens. A lexical analyser, or lexer for short, will as its input take a string of individual letters and divide this string into tokens. Additionally, it will filter out whatever separa........

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Regular expressions

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

The set of all integer constants or the set of all variable names are sets of strings, where the individual letters are taken from a particular alphabet. Such a set of strings is called a language. For integers, the alphabet consists of the digits 0-9 and for variable names the alphabet contains both letters and digits (and perhaps a few other characters, such as underscore). Given an alphabet, we........

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Introduction

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

Where lexical analysis splits the input into tokens, the purpose of syntax analysis (also known as parsing) is to recombine these tokens. Not back into a list of characters, but into something that reflects the structure of the text. This “something” is typically a data structure called the syntax tree of the text. As the name indicates, this is a tree structure. The leaves of this tree are th........

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Context-free grammar

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

Like regular expressions, context-free grammars describe sets of strings, i.e., languages. Additionally, a context-free grammar also defines structure on the strings in the language it defines. A language is defined over some alphabet, for example the set of tokens produced by a lexer or the set of alphanumeric characters. The symbols in the alphabet are called terminals. A context-free grammar re........

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Definition of An Aut

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

We shall give the most general definition of an automaton and later modify it to computer applications. An automaton is defined as a system where energy, materials and information are transformed. transmitted and used for performing some functions without direct participation of man. Examples are automatic machine tools, automatic packing machines, and automatic photo printing machines.........

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Transition System

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

A transition graph or a transition system is a finite directed labelled graph in which each vertex (or node) represents a state and the directed edges indicate the transition of a state and the edges are labelled with inputJoutput. A typical transition system is shown in Fig. 3.5. In the figure, the initial state is represented by a circle with an arrow pointing towards it, the final state by two........

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Basic Definition

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

The theory of formal languages is an area with a number of applications in computer science. Linguists were trying in the early 1950s to define precisely valid sentences and give structural descriptions of sentences. They wanted to define a fomlal grammar (i.e. to describe the rules of grammar in a rigorous mathematical way) to describe English. They tbought that such a desCliption of natural lang........

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Chomsky Classificati

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

In the definition of a grammar (V.v, 2:, P, S), VV and 2: are the sets of symbols and SEVy. So if we want to classify grammars. we have to do it only by considering the form of productions. Chomsky classified the grammars into four types in terms of productions (types 0-3). A type 0 grammar is any phrase structure grammar without any restrictions. (All the grammars we have considered are type 0 gr........

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Transition System

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

The transition systems can be generalized by permitting A-transitions or A-moves which are associated with a null symbol A. These transitions can occur when no input is applied. But it is possible to convert a transition system with A-moves into an equivalent transition system without A-moves. We shall give a simple method of doing it with the help of an example........

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Pumping Lemma

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

In this section we give a necessary condition for an input string to belong to a regular set. The result is called pumping lemma as it gives a method of pumping (generating) many input strings from a given string. As pumping lemma gives a necessary condition, it can be used to show that certain sets are not regular.........

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Introduction

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

Linked lists can be thought of from a high level perspective as being a series of nodes. Each node has at least a single pointer to the next node, and in the last node’s case a null pointer representing that there are no more nodes in the linked list. In DSA our implementations of linked lists always maintain head and tail pointers so that insertion at either the head or tail of the list is a co........

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Insertion

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

In general when people talk about insertion with respect to linked lists of any form they implicitly refer to the adding of a node to the tail of the list. When you use an API like that of DSA and you see a general purpose method that adds a node to the list, you can assume that you are adding the node to the tail of the list not the head. ........

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Traversing

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

Traversing a singly linked list in a forward manner (i.e. left to right) is simple as demonstrated in §2.1.4. However, what if we wanted to traverse the nodes in the linked list in reverse order for some reason? The algorithm to perform such a traversal is very simple, and just like demonstrated in §2.1.3 we will need to acquire a reference to the predecessor of a node, even though the fundam........

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Introduction

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

Binary search trees (BSTs) are very simple to understand. We start with a root node with value x, where the left subtree of x contains nodes with values < x and the right subtree contains nodes whose values are ≥ x. Each node follows the same rules with respect to nodes in their left and right subtrees. BSTs are of interest because they have operations which are favourably fast: insertion, look ........

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Searching

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

Searching a BST is even simpler than insertion. The pseudocode is self-explanatory but we will look briefly at the premise of the algorithm nonetheless. We have talked previously about insertion, we go either left or right with the right subtree containing values that are ≥ x where x is the value of the node we are inserting.........

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Tree Traversals

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

There are various strategies which can be employed to traverse the items in a tree; the choice of strategy depends on which node visitation order you require. In this section we will touch on the traversals that DSA provides on all data structures that derive from Binary Search Tree.........

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Breadth First

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

Traversing a tree in breadth first order yields the values of all nodes of a particular depth in the tree before any deeper ones. In other words, given a depth d we would visit the values of all nodes at d in a left to right fashion, then we would proceed to d + 1 and so on until we hade no more nodes to visit.........

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Introduction

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

A set contains a number of values, in no particular order. The values within the set are distinct from one another. Generally set implementations tend to check that a value is not in the set before adding it, avoiding the issue of repeated values from ever occurring. This section does not cover set theory in depth; rather it demonstrates briefly the ways in which the values of sets can be defined,........

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Ordered

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

An ordered set is similar to an unordered set in the sense that its members are distinct, but an ordered set enforces some predefined comparison on each of its members to produce a set whose members are ordered appropriately. In DSA 0.5 and earlier we used a binary search tree (defined in §3) as the internal backing data structure for our ordered set. From versions 0.6 onwards we replaced the bin........

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Introduction

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

Queues are an essential data structure that are found in vast amounts of software from user mode to kernel mode applications that are core to the system. Fundamentally they honour a first in first out (FIFO) strategy, that is the item first put into the queue will be the first served, the second item added to the queue will be the second to be served and so on. A traditional queue only allows you ........

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Standard Queue

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

A queue is implicitly like that described prior to this section. In DSA we don’t provide a standard queue because queues are so popular and such a core data structure that you will find pretty much every mainstream library provides a queue data structure that you can use with your language of choice. In this section we will discuss how you can, if required, implement an efficient queue data stru........

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Priority Queue

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

Unlike a standard queue where items are ordered in terms of who arrived first, a priority queue determines the order of its items by using a form of custom comparer to see which item has the highest priority. Other than the items in a priority queue being ordered by priority it remains the same as a normal queue: you can only access the item at the front of the queue. A sensible implementation of........

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Introduction

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

This extension implements the JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) data-interchange format. The decoding in PHP 5 is handled by a parser based on the JSON_checker by Douglas Crockford. PHP 7 comes with a completely new and improved parser that is specifically written for PHP and licensed under the PHP license. JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) is a platform and language independent way of serializin........

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Introduction

Date:  2017-05-26 00:00:00

Password hashing is one of the most basic security considerations that must be made when designing any application that accepts passwords from users. Without hashing, any passwords that are stored in your application\'s database can be stolen if the database is compromised, and then immediately used to compromise not only your application, but also the accounts of your users on other services, if ........

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single level

Date:  2017-05-31 00:00:00

Inheritance in java is a mechanism in which one object acquires all the properties and behaviors of parent object. The idea behind inheritance in java is that you can create new classes that are built upon existing classes. When you inherit from an existing class, you can reuse methods and fields of parent class, and you can add new methods and fields also. Inheritance represents the IS-A re........

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FCM

Date:  2017-05-31 00:00:00

Firebase Cloud Messaging (FCM) is a cross-platform messaging solution that lets you reliably deliver messages at no cost. Using FCM, you can notify a client app that new email or other data is available to sync. You can send notification messages to drive user reengagement and retention. For use cases such as instant messaging, a message can transfer a payload of up to 4KB to a client app.........

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Telephony Class

Date:  2017-05-31 00:00:00

Provides access to information about the telephony services on the device. Applications can use the methods in this class to determine telephony services and states, as well as to access some types of subscriber information. Applications can also register a listener to receive notification of telephony state changes. You do not instantiate this class directly; instead, you retrieve a reference ........

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